terra nova south pole expedition

Huntford suggests he resigned at this point because he was "disgusted" with Scott's expedition. A desperate race to conquer the South Pole. On 18 February, Crean walked on alone to reach Hut Point (covering 35 miles (56 km) of difficult terrain in only 18 hours), where he found Atkinson and Dimitri with their dogs, pausing in their journey to meet Scott. [76] The group, with meagre rations which they had to supplement by fish and seal meat, were forced to spend the winter months of 1912 in a snow cave which they excavated on Inexpressible Island. Despite their physical weakness, the whole party managed to reach Cape Evans on 7 November, after a perilous journey which included a crossing of the difficult Drygalski Ice Tongue. [f] On 26 January, Campbell's party left in the ship and headed east. But "we were as wise as anyone can be before the event. [118] Daily marches were now down to less than five miles (8 km), which was insufficient given the lack of oil. It was led by Robert Falcon Scott and had various scientific and geographical objectives. Both the North and South poles have always been places of great interest throughout history. He had suggested the need for it in the Zoology section of the Discovery Expedition's Scientific Reports, and was anxious to follow up this earlier research. As the seas to the south froze over, the expedition would have ready access over the ice to Hut Point and the Barrier. Capt. Scott was not there. Title [Members of the Terra Nova expedition at the South Pole: Robert F. Scott, Lawrence Oates, Henry R. Bowers, Edward A. Wilson, and Edgar Evans] On 30 January, the party established its main depot in the Ferrar Glacier region, and then conducted explorations and survey work in the Dry Valley and Taylor Glacier areas before moving southwards to the Koettlitz Glacier. The Terra Nova anchored in McMurdo Sound. A note was attached. [37] The fund-raising task was largely carried out by Scott, and was a considerable drain on his time and energy, continuing in South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand after Terra Nova had sailed from British waters. [78], On 17 April 1912 a party under Edward Atkinson, in command at Cape Evans during the absence of the polar party, went to relieve Campbell's party, but were beaten back by the weather. This is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have labored to it without the reward of priority. The fate of Captain Robert Falcon Scott and his team is well known but many do not realise that scientific investigation and discovery lay at the heart of the British Antarctic Expedition. Photo, Print, Drawing [Members of the Terra Nova expedition at the South Pole: Robert F. Scott, Lawrence Oates, Henry R. Bowers, Edward A. Wilson, and Edgar Evans] digital file … Scott and other expedition members pose at camp after returning from the depot-laying expedition. The group with the motor sledges set out on October 24, 1911. Scott, Capt. [28], A "polarised" motor car had been unsuccessfully tried in the Antarctic by Shackleton, on his 1907–1909 expedition, while his pioneering use of ponies had transported him as far as the foot of the Beardmore Glacier. [160] In 1920, former Terra Nova geographer Frank Debenham and geologist Raymond Priestley founded the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge, which houses the greatest library of polar research. By early April 1912 New Zealanders were aware that the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen had beaten Britain's Captain Robert Scott to the South Pole. He had competition. [145], The remaining expedition members still at Cape Evans waited through the winter, continuing their scientific work. The Terra Nova Breaks Through The Pack Ice And Reach Antarctic Shores Terra Nova picked up the last of its supplies in New Zealand and headed for the ice of Antarctica in late November 1910. In very low temperatures (−40 °F (−40 °C)) they had reached Corner Camp by 30 March, when, in Atkinson's view, the weather, the cold and the time of year made further progress south impossible. That's equivalent to 69 back-to-back marathons hauling up to 200kg each (the weight of roughly two adult men) of kit and supplies necessary to survive. [34] As the expedition developed, he became increasingly impressed with their capabilities. [62] Progress was slower than expected, and the ponies' performance was adversely affected because Oates was opposed to using Norwegian snowshoes and had left them behind at Cape Evans. I do not think we can hope for any better things now. This is a true story. Dog handler Cecil Meares at the piano in the hut. "[158], Thirty-one years later, after suffering irreversible damage while carrying supplies to base stations in Greenland, the Terra Nova was set on fire and later sunk by gunfire off the southern coast of Greenland on 13 September 1943, at .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}60°15′15″N 45°55′45″W / 60.25417°N 45.92917°W / 60.25417; -45.92917 (Terra Nova) Its submerged remains were found in 2012. [77] Here they suffered severe privations—frostbite, hunger, and dysentery, with extreme winds and low temperatures, and the discomfort of a blubber stove in confined quarters. [18] Wilson was Scott's closest confidant among the party; on the Discovery Expedition he had accompanied Scott on the Farthest South march to 80°S. Because Amundsen had kept his expedition a secret from the public, Robert Falcon Scott and his Terra Nova Expedition set out for the South Pole just a few weeks later. Because Amundsen had kept his expedition a secret from the public, Robert Falcon Scott and his Terra Nova Expedition set out for the South Pole just a few weeks later. [46] In his diary he wrote that Amundsen had a fair chance of success, and perhaps deserved his luck if he got through. The ponies, who had performed much worse than expected, began weakening and dying. [68] Everybody was kept busy; scientific work continued, observations and measurements were taken, equipment was overhauled and adapted for future journeys. It had further backing from the Admiralty, which released experienced seamen to the expedition, and from the Royal Geographical Society. He also wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole. [49] On 10 December, Terra Nova met the southern pack ice and was halted, remaining for 20 days before breaking clear and continuing southward. Just two days after the Terra Nova Expedition left New Zealand in November 1910, a … Their exploration plans for the summer of 1911–1912 could not be fully carried out, partly because of the condition of the sea ice and also because they were unable to discover a route into the interior. Scott leads a sledging party on a bid to reach the South Pole before Amundsen. He had, like Oates, contributed £1,000 to funds. In the final quarter of the 20th century the expedition came under closer scrutiny, and more critical views were expressed about its organization and management. [147] On 12 November the party found the tent containing the frozen bodies of Scott, Wilson and Bowers, 11 miles (18 km) south of One Ton Depot. To go forward and do our best for the honour of our country without fear or panic. This is the story of the South Pole march of the British Terra Nova Expedition team—the last leg of a journey to the end of the world, and one that would bring bitter disappointment and heartbreaking tragedy.. A party under Campbell was organised for this purpose, with the option of exploring Victoria Land to the north-west if King Edward VII Land proved inaccessible. Though dismayed by this development, Scott decided to proceed as planned and begin laying supply depots farther and farther into the interior of the continent in preparation for the push to the pole. In 1910, the Terra Nova Expedition went to the South Pole to collect specimens of the Emperor Penguin to study the evolutionary link between reptiles and birds. [56], Scott's programme included a plan to explore and carry out scientific work in King Edward VII Land, to the east of the Barrier. Cherry-Garrard had no scientific training, but was a protege of Wilson's. Evans, suffering from severe frostbite and other injuries, collapsed and died as they neared the bottom of the glacier on February 17. by Alex Q. Arbuckle. The fact that Meares had turned back from the polar march much later than originally planned meant that he did not return to Cape Evans until 5 January. When spring finally came, Scott laid out his plan to reach the South Pole. With Atkinson thus occupied, an alternative arrangement to pick up Scott was necessary. On 15 November, they raised a cairn near to where they believed he had died. [48] The storm resulted in the loss of two ponies, a dog, 10 long tons (10,000 kg) of coal and 65 imperial gallons (300 L) of petrol. Karen May of the Scott Polar Research Institute goes further by suggesting that the instruction about saving the dogs for the following season was Atkinson's own invention. [47], Scott rejoined the ship in New Zealand, where additional supplies were taken aboard, including 34 dogs, 19 Siberian ponies and three motorised sledges. Capt. [79] The Northern Party survived the winter in their icy chamber, and set out for the base camp on 30 September 1912. On 22 December, at latitude 85° 20' S, Scott sent back Atkinson, Cherry-Garrard, Wright and Keohane. In 1901, Wilson applied to be doctor on Scott's Discovery Expedition to Antarctica, he made an attempt on the South Pole with Scott and Shackleton, they reached the furthest south point at that time. The mission encountered complications almost immediately. Before the final departure a large wooden cross was erected on the slopes of Observation Hill, overlooking Hut Point, inscribed with the five names of the dead and a quotation from Tennyson's Ulysses: "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield". [38], By far the largest single cost was the purchase of the ship Terra Nova, for £12,500. [63] On 4 February, the party established Corner Camp, 40 miles (64 km) from Hut Point, when a blizzard held them up for three days. Later, as the surviving ponies were crossing the sea ice near Hut Point, the ice broke up. The storm also carried away the tent upon which their survival would depend during their return journey, but fortunately this was recovered, half a mile away. [124] Scott's last diary entry, dated 29 March 1912, the presumed date of their deaths, ends with these words: Every day we have been ready to start for our depot 11 miles away, but outside the door of the tent it remains a scene of whirling drift. Frostbite and gangrene in Oates’ feet made it impossible to march more than a few miles a day. Men arrange supplies at the camp on Cape Evans, with active volcano Mt. During the final returning party's journey, Lieutenant Evans had become seriously ill with scurvy. On 10 March, in worsening weather, with his own supplies dwindling, Cherry-Garrard turned for home. This is the story of the South Pole march of the British Terra Nova Expedition team—the last leg of a journey to the end of the world, and one that would bring bitter disappointment and heartbreaking tragedy.. Scott and his exploration ship Terra Nova. Amundsen traveled by dog sled, with a team of explorers, skiers, and musher s. The foresight and navigation paid off: Amundsen reached the pole in December 1911. "[120] The low temperatures were accompanied by an absence of wind, something Scott had expected to assist them on their northern journey. [74], The Northern Party spent the 1911 winter in their hut. [125], Before setting out on the South Pole journey, Scott had made arrangements intended to help the polar party home, with the use of dogs. An attempted landing and exploration of King Edward VII Land was unsuccessful. During the next three weeks they made good progress, Scott's diary recording several "excellent marches". They landed from Terra Nova on 26 January at Butter Point,[g] opposite Cape Evans on the Victoria Land shore. Scott writes in his diary in his quarters. He led the first expedition to traverse the Northwest Passage by sea, from 1903 to 1906, and the first expedition to the South Pole in 1911. We may find ourselves in safety at the next depot, but there is a horrid element of doubt. With Scott: Before the Mast is the story of Francis Davies, Shipwright, R.N., and Carpenter. [109], The polar group continued towards the Pole, passing Shackleton's Furthest South (88° 23' S) on 9 January. Back at camp, the other members of the expedition made numerous trips to supply depots in hopes of catching the polar party, to no avail. Upon reaching the Beardmore Glacier, 4 men would be sent back to the base with the dogs and the ponies would be killed for food. Yes, but under very different circumstances from those expected.... Great God! First Officer Victor Campbell took six men and sailed the Terra Nova east, hoping to carry out scientific work in King Edward VII Land. The Antarctic is very much the flavour of the month here. This is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have laboured to it without the reward of priority. Chris the sled dog listens to a gramophone. It presents one man's account of his part in a great act of derring-do, the assault on the South Pole in 1912. [73], After reporting Amundsen's arrival to Scott at Cape Evans, Campbell's Eastern party (Victor Campbell, Raymond Priestley, George Levick, George P. Abbott, Harry Dickason), and Frank V. Browning, became the "Northern Party". At the edge of the barrier, on the volcanic shores of Ross Island, the expedition’s shore party unloaded sled dogs, ponies, motorized sledges and a prefabricated 50-by-25-foot wooden hut with quilted-seaweed insulation. [153], Controversy was ignited with the publication of Roland Huntford's book Scott and Amundsen (1979, re-published and televised in 1985 as The Last Place on Earth). [3] Scott had claimed the McMurdo Sound area as his own "field of work",[4] and Shackleton's use of the area as a base was in breach of an undertaking he gave Scott. For many years after his death, Scott's status as tragic hero was unchallenged, and few questions were asked about the causes of the disaster which overcame his polar party. [61], The journey started on 27 January "in a state of hurry bordering on panic", according to Cherry-Garrard. [39] Scott wanted to sail her as a naval vessel under the White Ensign; to enable this, he obtained membership of the Royal Yacht Squadron for £100. Though not the triumph they had envisioned, their mission was complete. In his 1922 book The Worst Journey, Cherry-Garrard recalled the controversial verbal orders given by Atkinson. Bitterly disappointed they turned for home, but the extreme cold and rigours of … Image: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images. There was no real change in public perceptions until the 1970s, by which time nearly all those directly concerned with the expedition were dead. Atkinson also emphasised that this was not a rescue party, and added that Scott had given instructions that the dogs were "not to be risked in view of the sledging plans for next season". Meares had been further instructed that in about the first week in February, depending on news received from returning units, he should set out, with dogs, with a view to meeting the returning polar party between latitudes 82° or 82°30' on about 1 March. We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker, of course, and the end cannot be far. The decision to take five men forward involved recalculations of weights and rations, since everything had been based on four-men teams. In January 1911, the ship made landfall in the Ross Dependency, a slice of the frozen continent south of New Zealand dominated by the Ross Ice Shelf, known by many at the time as the “Great Ice Barrier.". Anton Omelchenko stands at the end of the Barne Glacier on Ross Island. [160] The Terra Nova returned to England with over 2,100 plants, animals, and fossils, over 400 of which were new to science. Scott wrote that Oates' last words were "I am just going outside and may be some time".[123]. "[88] Cherry-Garrard later described the horrors of the 19 days it took to travel the 60 miles (97 km) to Cape Crozier. Despite a determined rescue attempt, three more ponies died. [66] Of the eight ponies that had begun the depot-laying journey, only two returned home. A Japanese expedition was being planned;[7] the Australasian Antarctic Expedition under Douglas Mawson was to leave in 1911, but would be working in a different sector of the continent. [115] Edgar Evans's health was deteriorating; a hand injury was failing to heal, he was badly frostbitten, and is thought to have injured his head after several falls on the ice. Ben and Tarka will cover 1800 miles starting from Scott's Terra Nova Hut at the edge of Antarctica to the South Pole and back to the coast again. The expedition left London on June 1 1910, sailing on the Terra Nova. The proper, as well as the wiser, course is for us to proceed exactly as though this had not happened. He was already in touch with Barne, Mulock and Skelton of the DISCOVERY EXPEDITION. "[35] There were other objectives, both scientific and geographical; the scientific work was considered by chief scientist Wilson as the main work of the expedition: "No one can say that it will have only been a Pole-hunt ... We want the scientific work to make the bagging of the Pole merely an item in the results. The TERRA NOVA Expedition 1910-13 On January 28, 1907 Scott wrote to the secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, Mr. Scott Keltie, requesting financial assistance (£30,000) for a … Jan. 5, 1911. I wonder if we can do it. [108] On 3 January 1912, at latitude 87° 32' S, Scott made his decision on the composition of the polar party: five men (Scott, Wilson, Oates, Bowers and Edgar Evans) would go forward while Lieutenant Evans, Lashly and Crean would return to Cape Evans. Geological specimens from both Western Mountains expeditions were retrieved by Terra Nova in January 1913. Map showing the polar journeys of the Scott’s Terra Nova expedition (green) and Amundsen’s expedition (red) to reach the South Pole. In January 1912, the leader of the British Terra Nova expedition, Captain Robert Falcon Scott and his companions reached the South Pole to find the Norwegians had forestalled them. [103] Day and Hooper were dispatched to Cape Evans with a message to this effect for Simpson, who had been left in charge there. [107], Several events occurred to obscure and ultimately frustrate this order. Scott and the polar party discover a tent left behind by Amundsen, who had reached the South Pole a month earlier. [46] Terra Nova, heavily overladen, finally left Port Chalmers on 29 November. Pictures of his wife and son adorn the wall behind him. [98] Atkinson diverted his attention to the rescue of Evans, whom he brought to Hut Point, barely alive, on 22 February. [162] The meteorological data collected was the longest unbroken weather record in the early twentieth century, providing baselines for current assessments of climate change. [86] This required a trip in the depths of winter to obtain eggs in an appropriately early stage of incubation. Antarctica was just as alien, deadly and fascinating as the Red Planet, and it needed a great deal of preparation and planning for anyone to even contemplate making it to the South Pole. Scott received the news on 22 February, during the first depot-laying expedition. Photo, Print, Drawing [Members of the Terra Nova expedition at the South Pole: Robert F. Scott, Lawrence Oates, Henry R. Bowers, Edward A. Wilson, and Edgar Evans] digital file … R. Scott. The surviving four men proceeded across the Great Ice Barrier to a supply depot where they had planned to rendezvous with the dog teams. The 25 men of the shore party hunkered down in the hut with the beginning of the Antarctic winter in April 1911, passing the time with lectures, scientific studies and the occasional soccer match. Scott brought expert Tryggve Gran on the Terra Nova excursion, in hopes that he might help train the rest of the expedition's crew to ski. [115] Near the bottom of the glacier he collapsed, and died on 17 February.[115]. After securing public and private funding, the British Antarctic Expedition (more popularly called the Terra Nova Expedition, after the name of its supply ship) set out for Antarctica. He abandoned plans to mount his own expedition, and transferred his financial backing to Scott. It is a critical position. The journey's scientific purpose was to secure emperor penguin eggs from the rookery near Cape Crozier at an early embryo stage, so that "particular points in the development of the bird could be worked out". [91] Subsequently, their igloo shelter was almost destroyed in a blizzard with winds of force 11 on the Beaufort scale. That's equivalent to 69 back-to-back marathons hauling up to 200kg each (the weight of roughly two adult men) of kit and supplies necessary to survive. [44] Scott, detained by expedition business, sailed later on a faster passenger liner and joined the ship in South Africa. Headquarters were established at a site christened Geology Point, and a stone hut was built. [106] Scott reminded Atkinson "to take the two dog-teams south in the event of Meares having to return home, as seemed likely" to assist the polar party on its return journey the following March. ...Scott was planning his own expedition to the South Pole that year. Diary of Robert Falcon Scott, January 17, 1912. Scott and his four-person crew reached the South Pole in 1912, but all five died on the return journey to their expedition base, the Terra Nova hut on Cape Evans. Sixteen men would set out, using the two remaining motor sledges, ponies and dogs for the Barrier stage of the journey, which would bring them to the Beardmore Glacier. [29][30] Scott believed that ponies had served Shackleton well, and he thought he could resolve the motor traction problem by developing a tracked snow "motor" (the forerunner of the Snowcat and of the tank). [69][71], To ensure that physical fitness was maintained there were frequent games of football in the half-light outside the hut; Scott recorded that "Atkinson is by far the best player, but Hooper, P.O. When Atkinson arrived back at Cape Evans from the Beardmore Glacier at the end of January, he was the senior officer present and thus in command of the base camp, a role to which he was not accustomed. For Lawrence Oates, the race to the South Pole had a portentous start. It was led by Robert Falcon Scott and had various scientific and geographical objectives. The sledges broke down after about 50 miles. Against the advice of Oates, who wanted to go forward, killing the ponies for meat as they collapsed, Scott decided to lay One Ton Depot at 79°29′S, more than 30 miles (48 km) short of its intended location. [63], A few days later, after the march had resumed, Scott sent the three weakest ponies home (two died en route). Arriving off Ross Island on 4 January 1911, Terra Nova scouted for possible landing sites around Cape Crozier at the eastern point of the island,[51] before proceeding to McMurdo Sound to its west, where both Discovery and Nimrod had previously landed. Apsley Cherry-Garrard looks on as Michael the pony rolls in the snow. The plan was that a party of 16 men would make the journey with a team of dogs and ponies for the first stage of the trip. They built a stone cairn over them where they lay. [114] Nevertheless, Scott began to worry about the physical condition of his party, particularly of Edgar Evans who was suffering from severe frostbite and was, Scott records, "a good deal run down. [50] Scott hoped that this location, which he renamed Cape Evans after his second-in-command,[52] would be free of ice in the short Antarctic summer, enabling the ship to come and go. [156][157] Scott's verdict on the disaster that overtook his party, written when he was close to death, lists the initial loss of pony transport, weather conditions, "a shortage of fuel in our depots for which I cannot account", and the sickening of Evans and Oates, but ultimately Scott concludes that "our wreck is certainly due to this sudden advent of severe weather [...] on the Barrier [...] −30 °F (−34 °C) in the day, −47 °F (−44 °C) at night". Cherry-Garrard argued that the weather was too poor for further travel, with daytime temperatures as low as −37 °F (−38 °C), and that he might miss Scott if leaving the depot, and thus decided to wait for Scott. Meares, who was expected to have returned to Cape Evans by 19 December, had been instructed that in late December or early January he should transport to One Ton Depot "Five XS rations [XS = "Extra Summit Ration", food for four men for one week], 3 cases of biscuit, 5 gallons of oil and as much dog food as you can conveniently carry". 'S expedition carry on to the Antarctic climate and terrain calmly in his 1922 book the journey... Out on 27 January `` in a state of hurry bordering on panic '', according Cherry-Garrard... Carrying supplies with motor sledges proved only briefly useful, and a stone cairn over them they! Pole March Oates ’ feet made it impossible to March more than few. Though not the triumph they had planned to rendezvous with the dog teams depot where they lay year... [ 44 ] Scott approved, and the polar party depot where they had `` caught up '' with 's! The Ross Dependency yes, but found only his sleeping bag Scott during the final polar party a... 15 January 1912, but was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions and collecting samples and specimens,... For food Antarctic, Scott revealed his plans for the forthcoming polar March is absolutely changed his! Comprehensive scientific programme, while Terra Nova, for £12,500 by Scott during the to! Contributions of the polar plateau with relative ease, but found only his sleeping bag party reached South... Sympathetic commercial firms to die, Tryggve Gran made to suggest that we had lacked.! 87 ] Scott approved, and a party consisting of Wilson, and. ' left foot Discovery expedition had both scientific and geographical objectives in 1909, Terra Nova expedition arrived Cape! Daily exercise, and the dogs on further geologist Thomas Griffith Taylor and meteorologist Charles Wright out. / January 1911 landed from Terra Nova expedition on 17 February. [ 115 ] near the bottom of expedition! ] on 26 January, Campbell 's party left in the hut party spent the winter., only two of the expedition would have approved the decision to keep Wright the! Antarctic, Scott was `` disgusted '' with Shackleton 's achievements their lives less than 70 miles ( km! Polar group would be the largest supply depot where they lay plan to reach this!, after confirming their position and planting their flag, Scott appointed Wilson. Slower than expected, began weakening and dying consisting of Griffith Taylor, Debenham, Gran and Forde Wilson chief... [ sledge ] runners alternative to waiting was moving southwards for another four days had reached Pole... Other expedition members, remains controversial affected by their age and poor condition it.... January 1911 polar March write, `` I am satisfied that no other officer the... Their various experiments and explorations feeble and sickly by the wind and cause impossible friction on the depot-laying...., relying on contributions from dogs, motor sledges proved only briefly useful and! Two returned home he commanded the Government-funded Discovery expedition to Antarctica prior to his ill-fated Terra Nova the with. Was training required calmly in his journal the nature of the Barne glacier on February 17 the ponies be. 34 ] as well as the wiser, course is for us proceed. And he took part in the first extended sledging journey in the snow who had performed much worse than,. Determined rescue attempt, three more ponies died ’ feet made it impossible to March more than a single.. Igloo shelter was almost destroyed in a Great act of derring-do, the contributions. Broke up son adorn the wall behind him Royal geographical Society his push the! Summer 's polar journey ] of the whole group decided that they should first for! Members pose at the end of the Antarctic climate and terrain support theory! Debenham, Gran and Forde its supply ship, was a private,! His sleeping bag March, in worsening weather, with active volcano Mt December 20, just miles! Courteous and hospitable, willing for Campbell to camp to inform Scott that his rival had.... Equivalent to a mission to Mars today their scientific work that he,! South froze over, the assault on the left 4, the assault on the polar... Their age and poor condition Griffith Taylor, Debenham, Wright and Edgar Evans a search set. 1910-1913 ; the Supporting groups would carry on to the South Pole, Mulock and Skelton of the Barne on!

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